Blood Pressure Type, Cause of Hypotension & Hypertension and Treatment


Blood Pressure is defined as “The pressure which circulates the blood on the wall of a blood vessel”. Blood pressure usually refers to the pressure in the large arteries of the circulatory system. Blood pressure is low due to hypotension and the pressure which is continuously high is hypertension.

The normal blood pressure in an adult should be approximate:

  • 120 millimeters of mercury (16 kPa) systolic
  • 80 millimeters of mercury (11 kPa) diastolic
  • abbreviated “120/80 mmHg

Blood pressure is measured with the help of mercury-tube sphygmomanometer, which is stand gold standard instrument for accuracy. But today, modern technology has the same similarity in the mercury device.

Classification of Blood Pressure

There are different types of blood pressure which are as follows:

1- Systemic Arterial Pressure

This blood pressure caused due to the contraction of the small arteries. It increases the peripheral resistance to blood flow in the human body, which in result increases the heart’s workload and raises arterial pressure. The normal adult analysis is around 140 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury), and the upper limit for normal diastolic blood pressure is around 90 mm Hg.

2- Mean Arterial Pressure

It is derived from the patient’s Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP).  The MAP is defined as the average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle. Mean Arterial pressure is normal between 65 and 110 mmHg. If a person MAP is greater than 70 mg than it is enough to sustain the organ of an average person.

3- Pulse Pressure

Pulse Pressure is defined as the difference between the calculated systolic and diastolic pressures.

Mathematically it can be expressed as, P(pulse) = P(sys) –P(dias)

4- Systemic Venous Pressure

It is defined as the vascular pressure in a vein of the heart. Its common value is less than the arterial pressure. The normal pressure of the right atrium is 5mmHg and left atrium value is 8mmHg.

There are several types of venous pressure. It includes:

  • Central Venous Pressure

CVP is defined as theblood pressure in the venae cavae, near the right atrium of the heart.” It helps to replicate the amount of blood returning to the heart and also has the ability to pump the blood back into the arterial system. The average range for CVP is 0 to 5 mm H2O.

  • Jugular Venous Pressure

JVP is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system. It is useful in the separation of different forms of heart and lung disease. The average value JVP can be determined by calculating the midpoint distance of right atrium i.e. 6-8 cm H2O.

  • Portal Venous Pressure

It is the blood pressure in the portal vein. The average value is 5-10mmHg.


Blood pressure consists of two types of Disorders which include High Blood Pressure and Low Blood Pressure.

High Blood Pressure or hypertension

High Blood pressure is referred to the condition in which the force exerted by the blood against the artery walls is too high. High blood pressure is also known as Hypertension.  For dedicating high blood pressure it doesn’t show any sign and symptoms. If high blood pressure is not treated on time, then it can cause various health issues like heart disease and stroke.

Causes of HBP

The causes of high blood pressure are divided into two parts:

Essential High Blood Pressure: it doesn’t contain any recognized cause.

Secondary High Blood Pressure: it shows certain underlying cause.

Here are some examples of Secondary High Blood Pressure:

  • Age
  • Temperature
  • Family History
  • Obesity and overweight
  • Physically inactive
  • Consumption of Alcohol
  • Smoking
  • High intake of salt
  • Improper diet
  • Diabetes
  • Mental stress
  • Psoriasis
  • Pregnancy

Signs and Symptoms

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) doesn’t show any signs or symptoms, that’s why it is known as silent killer. Some of the signs of high blood pressure when the pressure reached about t 180/110 mmHg, it is considered as a medical emergency.

  • vomiting
  • Wooziness
  • Fuzzy
  • Nose bleeding.
  • Palpitations or irregular or forceful beating of the heart
  • Breathlessness
  • A headache
  • Nausea

If anybody is suffering from this signs and symptoms then they can immediately rush to doctor.


High blood pressure is not treated on time, and then it can affect your health. Below is the list of some complication due to high blood pressure:

  • Kidney disease
  • Thickened, narrow, or torn blood vessels in the eyes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Brain function and memory problems
  • Stroke
  • Heart attack and heart failure
  • Blood clots
  • An aneurysm


High blood pressure treatment depends upon several factors, such as its severity, associated risks of cardiovascular, disease, etc.  The change in the lifestyle can help to lower down the blood pressure, and below is the list for the treatment of high blood pressure:

  • Regular Exercise
  • Proper diet
  • Losing weight
  • Relaxation
  • Proper sleep
  • Medication

Low Blood Pressure

Hypotension is also referred to as Low Blood Pressure. The pressure is low than 90/60 is considered as low pressure.

Signs  and Symptoms

Here is the list of some signs and symptoms of low blood Pressure:

  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Cold, clammy skin
  • Fainting
  • Pale skin
  • Dizziness
  • Light-headedness
  • Instability
  • blurring of vision

If an individual is showing this signs and symptoms then immediately consult your doctor.


  • Age
  • Diseases like Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, and some heart problems
  • Medications like Water pills, Alpha blockers, Beta blockers, certain types of antidepressants.


Due to low blood pressure, it can include some complications like:

  • Heart Problems
  • Endocrine problems
  • Dehydration
  • Blood loss
  • Severe infection
  • Allergic reaction
  • Lack of nutrients


Depending on your age, health and the type of low blood pressure you can increase your blood pressure level by following some changes in your lifestyle. It includes:

  • Use more salt
  • Drink lots of water
  • Wear compression stockings
  • Medications
  • Eat a proper and healthy diet
  • Pay attention towards your body posture
  • Eat low-carbs meals


In today typical and modern lifestyle blood problem is a big issue and a kind of diseases for each and every person. One or the other person is suffering from the problem of blood pressure. So by proper precautions and healthy diet, an individual can cure the blood pressure.

Eat Healthy, Stay Healthy”